Country Profile


  National Flag  

National Flag

  National Emblem 

National Emblem

  Standart of the President of Turkmenistan  

Standart of the President
of Turkmenistan

  Welcome kit to Turkmenistan  



Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia and borders with Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and the Caspian Sea. Its territory is 488,100 square kilometers, of which approximately 80% is desert. The main rivers are the Amu-Darya, Tejen, Murgab and Sumbar. Ashgabat is the capital of Turkmenistan located in the southern part of the country. Turkmenistan is divided into five administrative regions (velayats): Ahal, Balkan, Lebap, Mary and Dashogus each consisting of several districts (etraps). The main sea port of Turkmenistan is Turkmenbashi (former Krasnovodsk) on the Caspian Sea.   


Turkmenistan has a subtropical desert climate that is severely continental. Summers are long (from May through September), hot and dry, while winters generally are mild and dry, although occasionally cold and damp in the north. Most precipitation falls between January and May; precipitation is slight throughout the country, with annual averages ranging from 300 millimeters in the Kopet-dag to eighty millimeters in the northwest. Average annual temperatures range from highs of 16.8°C in Ashgabat to lows of -5.5°C in Dashoguz in the north-central Turkmenistan.

Natural Resources

Turkmenistan is richly endowed with natural and energy resources. It has huge stocks of mining and raw chemicals: sulphur, iodine-bromide water, sodium sulphate, potassium and table salt, carbonate raw for chemical industry, etc. Mining raw is presented by bentonite, kaolin, raw for mineral fibre production, marble onyx, ozokerite, etc. The metal minerals are lead, zinc. The country possesses numerous deposits of raw for the building materials production industry. Turkmenistan also has substantial reserves of oil and natural gas.


According to Government statistics, population of Turkmenistan is 6.7 million (2006). Of the total population, 47.4% live in the urban areas.The largest ethnic group in the country is Turkmen.Other ethnic groupsinclude Uzbek, Russian,  Kazak, Tatar,Ukrainian, Armenian and Azerbaijani. The Turkmen language is the official state language. However, in most of the urban areas theRussian language continues to be widely spoken. Majority of the population is Sunni Muslim. There are also Russian Orthodox, Armenian Christian and other confessions in Turkmenistan.


Despite its rich past history, Turkmenistan is a relatively young state. It declared its independence in October 1991 and following the dissolution of the Soviet Union it became the member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In March 1992, Turkmenistan became a member of the United Nations (UN) and on 12 December 1995 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the status of permanent neutrality of Turkmenistan, which has become the guiding principle of Turkmenistan's foreign policy.  

Political System

HDI Value

0.739 (#109)
Life Expectancy:64.6 years
Infant Mortality:45 per 1000 live births*         
Literacy Rate:99.5% (adults)
GDP Per Capita:USD$ 4,953 (PPP)
Total Area:488,100 sq km




          Source: 2009 Human Development Report 
            * State of the World's Children Report 2009

Turkmenistan’s political system and decision-making structures remain highly centralized and are characterized by a strong presidency. Mr. Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov, the current President of Turkmenistan was elected on 14 February 2007 and received 89.23 % of the votes cast. Under the presidency of Mr. Berdymukhammedov, the new Government has initiated the reforms in different areas, including the agriculture, information and communication technologies, economy, education, local governance and other areas. Democratic Party of Turkmenistan is the only political party. Legislative branch is represented by unicameral Mejlis (Parliament) consisting of 125 members elected directly by constituencies through an absolute majority of the votes cast. The latest elections took place on 14 December 2008.


Turkmenistan  has a highly specialized  economy,  which largely depends on export of natural gas, oil and cotton. Its per capita Gross Domestic Product is US$ 4.953, and its Human Development Index value is 0.739, which ranks it 109th among 182 countries. Vast hydrocarbon resources of the country make it an important player in world energy markets. Turkmenistan's natural gas reserves rank it among top ten in the world. Due to the resumption of energy exports in the late 1990s, Turkmenistan has been experiencing steady positive growth during 1998-2003. Realizing the need for diversification of productive base and reducing the country’s reliance on income flowing from exports of hydrocarbon resources, the Government has announced the reforms in the economic sector in 2007.

Capital City

Ashgabat is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It is located between the Kara-Kum desert and the Kopet-Dag mountain range. The Kopet-Dag mountain range is about 25 km to the south, and Ashgabat's northern boundary touches the Kara-Kum desert. Because of this location, Ashgabat has an arid climate with hot and dry summers and mild and short winters.

National Holidays and Memorial Days

1 January

New Year

12 January

Memorial Day

19 February

National Flag Day

8 March

International Women’s Day

21-22 March

Spring Holiday/Novruz Bayram

9 May

Victory Day

18 May

Day of Revival, Unity and poetry of Makhtumkuli

6 October

National Commemoration Day

27-28 October

Independence Day

12 December

Neutrality Day



Post-2015 National Consultations in Turkmenistan

Download the national report:

 - English
 - Russian
Report on 2nd round of post-2015 consultations

Download the report:

 - English
 - Russian
  • World Bank Group Signs First Reimbursable Advisory Services Agreement with Turkmenistan
  • UNICEF and private sector partnership in wide dissemination of child care messages
  • Turkmenistan Adopts Nutrition Policies Beneficial for Children
Top of Page
Home | Contact | Links | Sitemap
© 2015 United Nations in Turkmenistan